Monday, March 30, 2020
Assignment #3 Communication and Influence Daniel S. Carrera Dr. Darlene L. Pomponio Project Management Leadership - BUS 518 Strayer University ? Newport News 18 February 2011 Abstract Project Managers and/or project teams must develop communication plans in order to minimize ineffective communication. Project managers must also be able to influence the action(s) of others by using various power methods. When using these power methods there are definite pros and cons that will augment or degrade a project manager?s influential methods. Communication and Influence Communication is essential to project management and if not done correctly one, two or all three of project management?s tenets (cost, schedule, and performance) will severely degrade a program with the possibility of overrun. Effective communication begins with effective planning. The basic premise of project management planning is to effectively communicate and answer fundamental management questions (Phillips, 2007): Who needs what information? When do they need the information? In what modality is the information needed? Who will provide the information? Communication planning is essential to answer the questions previously listed as early as possible in the project planning process. If the questions are not answered in a timely manner, the outcome will be severely affected. Communication plans are put in place as an essential component of good project management. The plan will ensure that all stakeholders are equally informed of how, when, and why communication will happen. Communication is often a very effective way to solve problems, deal with risks, and ensure that tasks are completed on time. I am the Deputy of Operations for a Mobile Training Team (MTT) called ?ISR TOPOFF? that bridges a serious communication gap between intelligence collection assets and commanders who are leading Soldiers in Afghanistan and Iraq. Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, Military intelligence units, as well as the rest of the Army, have undergone tremendous transformation. The Army has transformed from a Division-centric force to Brigade Combat Team. Brigade Combat Teams (BCT) have assets organic to its organization such as the Reconnaissance Surveillance Target Acquisition (RSTA) squadrons, Military Intelligence companies and Signal companies that provide critical information to support commander?s operational needs. Since this transformation, commanders now have greater capabilities to focus organic and non-organic intelligence assets in their area of operations. Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR) assets are critical intelligence enablers that communicate much needed operational information to ensure commanders have all the critical data that allow their units to become successful in military operations. This communication process will allow commanders to make timely decisions and minimize casualties during combat operations. The communication plan the government has implemented to support commanders is the MTT which I currently reside over as the Deputy of Operations. The intent of the MTT is to train Soldiers with the latest training on current ISR systems and processes used in combat operations. ISR TOPOFF MTT is a resource available to all BCTs so that no unit deploying to a combat theater should go in cold on the latest intelligence capabilities, lessons learned, and tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP). The instructors in our MTT use current real world experiences and vignettes to provide a good operational training during Homestatin training prior to deploying to a theater of operations. The training gives Soldiers a better understanding on how to support commander?s intelligence requirements and integrate battle staff elements into the process. ISR TOPOFF has three clear and distinct goals which support a commander?s communication plan: ? Provide the Brigade Combat Teams (BCT) collection team clear, specific understanding of how to make the ?ISR process? respond to the BCT Commander?s operational needs. ? Provide specific details on what to expect for pre-planned, ad-hoc, and dynamic mission requests to include what ISR systems are available to the BCT. ? Provide insight on what process, systems and products works best for effective operational support for specific missions. ISR TOPOFF MTT is comprised of standalone instruction modules over 3 days consisting of hands-on training and if needed, a senior leaders overview. The training is very useful for intelligence centric personnel. As an example, they receive a refresher on implementation of critical intelligence discipline such as: Human Intelligence (HUMINT), Signal Intelligence (SIGINT), Measures and Signals Intelligence (MASINT), and Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) and the dynamics of leveraging assets in support of operational needs. Since the advent of ISR TOPOFF and
Saturday, March 7, 2020
A New House A New House-Marginal Costs and Marginal Benefits Paper A New House-Marginal Costs and Marginal Benefits Paper Purchasing a new home is a major financial decision people make when they are able to. Their ability to make this decision is largely determined by how well the economy is performing. Marginal costs and marginal benefits The strength of an economy can greatly affect the marginal costs of home ownership. This is done by allowing the home buyers to see the amount of home they are able to obtain at various points in the economy. When interest rates are lower, consumers are able to get more house for the same amount of money, as opposed to when they re higher. Marginal benefits are also affected by the strength of the economy since it allows consumers to easily see what they could get by purchasing a home, as opposed to renting. Tax deduction removal If the annual tax deduction on mortgage interest was removed, it could have a great affect on those that finance their homes. Since the amount they are credited with on their taxes can be up to several thousand dollars, it can mean many people are going to be without the potential savings safety net they could have once they file the following year. Despite eventually being able to own the home outright, some buyers may not see a difference with renting since there Is no benefit Involved. Changes in government spending and taxes When the government Introduces or takes away special programs, It makes a difference to those purchasing homes. A good example of that was the recent $8000 tax credit for making a home purchase. This was Introduced to help save the mortgage industry by giving more people the opportunity of homeownership with a government Issued credit. It served as a balance to the stricter loan requirements banks were going by as well.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Contemporary Issues In Marketing - Essay Example Though the customers perceive the whole thing as a single offering but actually customers reacts differently to each element of the marketing mix. If each part of the marketing mix acts differently and contradicts each other, then it creates an ambiguous effect that makes the customers behave in a confused manner and they tend to purchase product from other companies who have defined brands (Foxall, 1981). The method of marketing mix is used by the marketing manager to produce optimal response in the target market. By creating a perfect blend of the marketing mix elements such that they are utilized in an optimum way. All the elements in the marketing mix are controllable variable and can be altered to meet the need of the target market and the environment. Hence marketing mix is most useful tool to design the strategy and achieve success in the target market (Bootwala, Lawrence and Mali, 2009; Botha, Bothma and Brink, 2005). This study focuses on the use of the marketing tool for a restaurant chain in London that aims to generate a positive experience for the customers. Marketing Mix for the service chain The marketing mix for the service industry deals with the 7PÃ¢â¬â¢s like product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence. Product The package or product in the service industry is seen as a bundle of benefits and features, which has a close relevance to the target market. This makes it important to develop the service product or the benefit package to meet the expectation of the customer. The products offered by a restaurant can be classified into five levels like core benefits, basic product, expected product, augmented product and potential product. Core benefit is the fundamental service or benefit that the customer is buying. Basic product indicates the basic functional attributes of the product that is offered by the service provider. Expected product is the attributes that are normally expected by the customers. Augmented produ ct indicates the facilities or services that are provided by going beyond the expectations of the customers. Potential product are those that are created by innovation and distinguishes the service provider from others operating in the market (Srinivasan, 2012). In case of the restaurant chain the core benefit will be the taste of the food and the Italian cuisine in which it specialises. Studies have shown that eating habit of the people of London has undergone dramatic changes due to the opening of restaurants of diverse tastes specially French, German, Italian, Australian etc (White, 2011). The basic product will be foods and drinks of diverse origin and taste. The expected products that the restaurant offers is cleanliness and good ambience that is perfect for family and official dining. Augmented services would include just in time services, aroma and music. The potential product that would make the restaurant most distinguishing is the Italian food and some dietary foods; since people of London are now getting more and more diet concerned and health conscious (Wheelock, 1997). Price Competitive pricing should be done in order to be acceptable to the customers. It is the general tendency of the customers to link the price with the product or services offered by the organization. In simple words it indicates that the pricing of any product or services is largely influenced by the quality perceived by the customer
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Unit 43 distinction - Coursework Example There are several merits of using energy efficient devices, and this include saving of money. Studies have shown that improving the thermal characteristic of a home by buying the latest energy saving equipments easily save about 30% of the energy bills. A properly insulated house shall use less heating fuel and less electricity during summer for air conditioning. Other ways of reducing utility bill is by using CFL bulbs and other energy star appliances2. The energy efficient equipments help in improving the local economy. This can be achieved when the local and domestic companies provide energy efficient devices instead of importing electricity or natural gas from outside the community. By using the energy efficient devices, we help in reducing environmental pollution. The power plants that generate electricity use natural gas or burning oil thus causes air pollution and emission of greenhouse gases. Therefore, by consuming less energy it helps to lower the emission of pollutants in the air. Energy efficient devices will enhance less utilization of the available energy thus saving a lot of energies that can be exported. Exported power earn a lot of revenues to a country that can be vested in improving schools, hospital among others. Moreover, using energy efficient devices improves an individual comfort at home since it reduces expenditure needed to heat their homes to comfortable levels. Electrical energy can be utilized in a commercial building for different purposes including use in computer appliances, driving of lifts within the building as well as maintain the thermal characteristics. Electrical energy can be used to heat equipments to produce heat as well as running the air conditioner machines to bring in cold
Monday, January 27, 2020
Halal Meat Preparation and Quality Standards Harmonisation of Halal standard is an urge in the current market and there are several main aspects that we need to focus on for harmonisation. In the following session, we will discuss about aspects in Halal standard that should be harmonise between ASEAN countries. Malaysia Halal certification is based on the Malaysian standard of MS 1500:2009 which is the General Guidelines covered the Halal Food Production, Preparation, Handling and Storage. Brunei Darussalam standard is PBD 24:2007 on Halal Food which prepared by its national Religious Council. Thailand National Halal Standard of THS 24000:2552 regarding General Guidelines on Halal Products is prepared by the Central Islamic Committee of Thailand. Indonesia Halal standard is known as General Guidelines of Halal Assurance System LPPOM MUI and being published on year 2008. Finally, Singapores MUIS Halal Certification Standard is regarding the General Guidelines for the Handling and Processing of Halal Food. All this standards will be compare and contrast in the following session to observe the similarity and differences. Each of the standards will be call for short in the text by national standard. Animal Welfare Animal welfare is being regard as an important aspect in Halal slaughtering. Slaughtering act which result in poor cut, bad bleeding and slow loss of consciousness and pain are considered as violating the animal welfare in Islamic Law (Chambers and Grandin, 2001). In Thailand National Halal Standard, it state that animal welfare should be protected according to Islamic law and performed exactly to decrease animal maltreatment. Hence, animals are required to be feed with enough water and taken a rest properly before slaughter and the animal shall be instantly slaughter by sharp knife and their skin should not be cut before it is completely dead. MUIS Halal Certification Standard of Singapore regarding general guidelines for the handling and processing of Halal food also stated that animal should be rested and fed. In addition, it had stated that area to hold the animals before slaughtering should not be near to the slaughtering place by making a significant distance to ensure that the animals in holding area will not see or sense the slaughtering action. Indonesias Guidelines on Chicken Slaughtering and Chicken Meat Handling in Small Scale Chicken Slaughterhouses also had mentioned that animal welfare should be applied based on several basic principles which are freedom from hunger, thirst, discomfort, pain, injury, disease, fear and distress, while freedom to express normal behaviour. However, others countries Halal standard such as standard from Malaysia and Brunei do not clearly stated about actions to protect animal welfare. Hence, these actions should be harmonised among countries to ensure that all the animals are treated well and accordingly prior slaughtering to reduce the possibility of maltreatment. Slaughtering In different countries, there may have different methods for slaughtering the animals, hence a standard should be set among ASEAN countries. By having a harmonised Halal standard, the slaughtering processes can be harmonized and trades of meats between ASEAN countries or importation of meats from other countries can be facilitated. Lawful animals to be slaughters are refer to poultry and ruminant. Examples of poultry are chicken, duck, turkey, ostrich and quail of any age or sex; while ruminant permitted to slaughtered, processed and stored are cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, deer, camel and others ruminants (JAKIM, 2008). Fishes and other marine animals are excluded and any form of merciful killing methods also can be used (MUIS, 2005). Most of the Halal slaughtering guidelines in ASEAN countries are similar, and only certain points are dissimilar and those points should be harmonised to achieve better similarity and acceptance of Halal meat product among these countries. Although a ASEAN general guidelines on the preparation and handling of Halal food is available, however the slaughtering rules stated are too general, so a more specific rules should be published to ensure the practice of slaughtering will be same among ASEAN nations. On the other hand, the proper pronunciation of the phrase to recite prior the slaughtering acts on animal also slightly different among countries. Although the ASEAN general guidelines had stated as Bismillah Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, but most countries do not follow this wording. Although all the phrase are refers to similar meaning which is In the name of Allah Most Gracious, Most Merciful or In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest, Malaysia stated the phrase to be invoked immediately before slaughtering in Arabic , while Brunei version is , Thailand version is Bismillah Allahu Akhbar, Indonesia version is Bismillahi Allahu Akbar, and Singapore version only stated to recite Basmalah but did not stated the exact phrase wording. The Muslim slaughterman should recite the same phrase prior slaughtering, so harmonization can be should be done to achieve it. In ASEAN general guidelines, it only stated that it should severe the trachea, oesophagus, main arteries and veins of the neck region, while Malaysia, Brunei and Thailands Halal Standard are more specific and specified that slaughtering act shall begin with an incision on the neck at some point just below the glottis and after the glottis for long necked animals, then the part to severe are trachea, oesophagus, and both the carotid arteries and jugular veins to hasten the bleeding and death of the animal. It also required that bleeding be spontaneous and complete. Malaysia and Bruneis standard also displayed the slaughtering part for chicken and cattle clearly with figure. On the other hand, different term also had been use to describe the part of the animal, where trachea is known as windpipe and oesophagus is known as gullet in Singapore Standard. Singapores Standard only stated to cut the windpipe, gullet and jugular vein but didnt mentioned on the arteries that should be severed; while Indonesias Halal standard only mentioned on cutting the trachea, esophagus and two neck arteries but didnt mentioned on its veins. The Indonesias Halal standard also required that the position of the to-be-slaughtered chicken to facing the Kiblat which said to be recommended by Islamic Law, but this requirement did not found in any standard in the other ASEAN countries. Hence, parts of animals, term to define and method for slaughtering act should be defined clearly and better with figures, so the slaughterman could slaughter the animal accordingly and standardized among ASEAN countries. Stunning Stunning is a step to make the animal unconscious before the slaughtering to eliminate possible pain, discomfort and stress from slaughtering process (Chambers and Grandin, 2001). Although process of stunning is not encourage in most of the Halal Guideline, but it is permitted if it carried out within the specified condition. The ASEAN general guidelines which established on the year 1997 had stated that only electrical and mechanical stunning can be use and this stunning should not kill or injured the animal. Poultry are generally agreed to be stunned with electrical water bath stunning method among the ASEAN countries. Only Indonesia Guidelines on slaughtering had mentioned additional one type of stunning method which is manual stunner where it operated by touching the chicken head with a metal electrified with certain voltage and ampere. This type of method had not been stated in the guidelines of others countries and may not be permitted in some of these countries. The ASEAN general guidelines stated that only mechanical stunner should be use in cattle and buffaloes and stunner which do not penetrate or break the skull should be use to avoid causing any injuries to the animal and it stated that non-penetrative type (mushroom head) percussion stunner should be allowed. However, according to the decision of Malaysia Fatwa, non-penetrative captive bolt (mushroom head gun) is unlawful, but it allow electrical stunning method which of the type of head only stunner other than mechanical stunner. Pneumatic percussive stunning for cows is allowed if the skull of the animal stunned did not crack or does not causing the death of the animal. Thailands Halal Standard had state that only electrically stunning of head-only stunner which attached to both electrodes on animals head are approved. It also allowed the non-penetrative stunner (mushroom head type) for stunning of animals. However, Brunei, Indonesia and Singapore standard just stated that stunning p rocess is allowed if it does not cause animal death before slaughtered but didnt list out the specification for stunning. All the stunning method should be specified and harmonised, so cases of non-compliances to the importing countries standard will not occur during importation or exportation of the Halal meat product and the exporting product will not be banned and causes any economic loss. Mechanical Slaughtering In ASEAN general guidelines, it had stated that mechanical slaughter of chicken is permitted if certain condition can be fulfilled. However, according to Brunei Halal standard, it had totally prohibited the mechanical slaughtering of Halal animals, which means that the slaughtering act should only be done by the human slaughterer. On the other hand, Malaysia and Thailand have specified standard and condition stated in the guidelines of mechanical slaughtering of poultry, while Indonesia and Singapore do not specified terms and condition related to mechanical slaughtering in their Halal standard. According Fatwa Indonesia, they had decide that mechanical slaughtering which due to technological advancement are permitted and animal slaughtered with this method is Halal, but detail requirement are not stated. Requirements for mechanical slaughtering in Malaysia and Thailand are mostly similar to the ASEAN general guidelines requirement which required the slaughterer to clearly invoke the prayer of Bismilah before switching on the mechanical knife and the knife must be single steel blade type which is sharp, clean without contaminant and used for Halal slaughtering only. Whenever a slaughterer wants to leaves the slaughter place or replace by another slaughterer, he must stop the mechanical knife operation first and another slaughterer should again invoke the prayer before switching the knife again. The slaughtering act by mechanical knife should severe the trachea, oesophagus and both the carotid arteries and jugular veins of the poultry and any poultry which missed by the mechanical knife will be slaughter manually by hand. The other two countries which do not have specified terms and condition about mechanical slaughtering should state their requirement in the standard either they permitted or prohibited the act, so it could reduce the confusion to the slaughtering house and ease the trade between countries. Since Brunei insist to prohibited on mechanical slaughtering, it might become the trade barrier of Halal food between ASEAN nations, so this issue must be treated well with harmonisation of standard and consensus among these nations. Thoracic Stick According to Wan-Hassan (2007), he stated that delisting of Australian and New Zealand Halal meat producer by JAKIM Malaysia because of thoracic sticking had causes loss of export of these countries amounted to $53 million. However, later on a conference between Malaysia Fatwa Committee had discuss on this issue and decided that thoracic sticking method, which is the additional procedure after slaughtering of animal is permitted and the meats following this action are still considered as Halal. The decision of Fatwa Committee regarding this issue had stated several conditions to be fulfilled which are the slaughtering act must be complete before thoracic sticking where the trachea, oesophagus and two jugular veins must be severed. The animal must be died because of slaughtering, while thoracic sticking only functions to speed up the death which only can be performed 30 seconds after the slaughtering act. There are no information could be found about thoracic sticking in others ASEAN countries Halal standard, so a detailed requirements and permission on thoracic sticking should be properly stated in each countrys regulation and being harmonised among them. This action could increase the Halal status of the product, while on the same time it could reduces the economic loss of exporting countries and prevent their product banned by ASEAN countries. Labeling Standards and Requirement The ASEAN general guidelines on Halal Food did not stated any labeling requirement about Halal food product. However, by referring to the labeling standards in each countrys Halal guidelines, we had found that Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Thailand had stated standard and requirement about labeling, while Indonesia Halal standard did not mentioned the requirement for labeling. Malaysia and Brunei standard are similar, while Thailand Halal standard is slightly different because it is more detail with more specification. Generally, Malaysia and Brunei Halal standard required that the labeling material used should be non-hazardous and Halal. Then, each container should be label with name of the product, nett weight, name and address of the manufacturer, importer and distributor, list of ingredients, code number identifying date and or batch number of manufacture and expiry date with country of origin. Meat products are required to label with date of slaughter and date of processing. S ingapore Halal label guidelines is obtained from its certification terms and condition where it stated the Halal label specification such as length, width, colour, serial number, durability and material. Thailand requirement for labeling are different from the countries discussed, which required the producer to specifiy legibly the product ingredients, especially for product which contained makroh ingredient or consist of animals and fish. It also required the products which contained genetically modified foods, or fats, meat bits or derivatives of fats such as gelatin and rennin to be clearly specified on the label. The standard also required the Halal product to be labeled with nutrition fact. On the other hand, meat products are additional required to have information about animal health certificate on its labeling. Mark such as official stamp are required to proof the Halal slaughtering act and the branding ink should be stable and non-hazardous. It also stated that Halal logo should specify the organization in charge and required the certification number to be printed on product. Halal logo which is a label issued after the Halal food product had been proven of its Halal status by Halal certification authorities. By having the proper label of Halal logo, it also helps to prevent the product from being mixed or contaminated with materials which are non-Halal. Hence, by attaching a Halal logo on the label, it had proven that the product is safe and suitable to be consumed by Muslim consumer. The Halal logo on food product is more meaningful and important for Muslim consumers than ISO or other similar certification because it could indicate the wholesomeness of the food and it proven the food is ritually clean (Shafie and Othman, 2006). However, all the ASEAN countries or countries worldwide are having own national Halal logo, but national logo is not usable on another countries, so food products which schedule to be export must be special amend on their labeling to comply with the importing countries requirements. If the Halal logo with its Halal certification process could be harmonized worldwide or at least among ASEAN countries, it definitely can ease the trade of Halal food between countries and reduces the additional work load for exportation of Halal food. Although ASEAN general guidelines on Halal food handling had suggest that food products which produced according to the standard could be label with a ASEAN label and National Halal logo to proved it Halal status, but we have found out that most of the product still did not label the Halal food with this way. It may due to that certain country do not recognize and approve the Halal standard of another country. NATIONAL HALAL LOGO Laboratory Testing Laboratory testing can be use to verify that the Halal food product are free from sources which is haram and free from contamination of haram ingredient. According to the subsection of verification methods in Thailand Halal standard, the verification testing may include profile testing; physical, chemical and microbiology analysis; blood and blood products test; genetically modified products, preservatives, and additives analysis; and through inspecting of packaging and packaging materials. Halal primary concern is of the contaminant from ethyl alcohol and pork origin, so most of the laboratory testing is to verify that the food products are free from contamination by these materials. However, only Thailand Halal standard had generally stated about the guidelines for verification by laboratory testing without specify the detail methodology, while others ASEAN countries totally did not stated any requirement or guidelines about laboratory testing for verification the Halal status of the product. Currently, JAKIM in Malaysia also do not have full range of research and development unit and it need the assistance from third party to run the laboratory testing and analysis to certify the Halal status of the product (Shafie and Othman, 2006). The laboratory testing and analysis methodology may differ between different laboratory testing centres, so standardization should be conduct to obtained similar level of Halal verification nationally. Basically, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) will be used in laboratory for detection of forbidden substances, such as PCR is used to detect pork DNA, while ELISA is used to detect the pres ence of antibody or antigen in the product (Zareena, 2010). News had revealed that JAKIM (Malaysia) will build a government-owned Halal analysis laboratory by 2012 in Bandar Enstek, Nilai to analysed Halal product. This will be the first country in the global to have governmental based Halal analysis laboratory. Datuk Seri Jamil Khir Baharom, Minister in the Prime Ministers Department in Malaysia also said that after the Halal Act being legislated, JAKIM will be the only body to issue Halal certificates and private sector will not be allowed to do so anymore (Bernama, 2011). These laboratory will conduct research on food and others product to verify the Halal status, and it will be used by local and foreign food producers. If this Halal analysis laboratory by JAKIM could increase their capability, it may become the centre for Halal analysis laboratory to execute test for products from ASEAN countries for Halal product status. Hence, it may become a factor for harmonisation of the laboratory testing method among ASEAN countries. This action ma y generate a standardized requirement on laboratory testing and methodology, so laboratory testing of product for Halal certification among ASEAN countries could be equally recognised. Approaches for Harmonization Harmonization of the ASEAN Halal standard is the need for ASEAN countries; so many respective authorities had been putting effort on finding the suitable approaches to harmonize the standard and to get consensus agreement on the implementation according to the harmonized Halal standard. Reference Standard Currently, there is no single reference point for Halal standard that is accepted worldwide as the industry standard, so all the countries are now having their own national Halal standard for the certification scheme (MITI, 2006). To produce an ASEAN Halal standard that is able to be use with ease in ASEAN countries, usually it needs to base on several reference standards. The reference standard could be national Halal standard, Codex guidelines, regional Halal standard or others. Currently, a Codex guidelines which named by General Guidelines for Use of the Term Halal is available to be refers by all countries worldwide, but it barely cover and recommend on the use of Halal claims and Halal food labeling with defining of the term Halal but do not encompass all areas related to Halal food production. Generally, Codex is being known as a standard which is effective for dispute settlement, so the Codex General Standard should be develop and leverage to include more aspects of Halal foo d preparation, handling and production. On the other hand, MABIMS which is the Association of Religious Ministers of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore had also formed a Technical Committee and develop a MABIMS Guidelines for Preparation of Food and Drink for Muslims. Both Codex and MABIMS guidelines also had been act as reference to develop the ASEAN General Guideline (Ad-Hoc Working Group, 1997). ASEAN ad-hoc working group is a committee which comprise of representative from Senior Officials Meeting of the ASEAN Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry (SOM-AMAF) and religious authorities of each ASEAN member country. One of the functions of this committee is to coordinate the multinational policy and develop the ASEAN General Guidelines on the Preparation and Handling of Halal Food. This ASEAN general guideline had been published on year 1997. However, this general guidelines is too brief and do not covered every aspect, so it cannot be totally followed or enforces by the ASEAN countries during the accreditation of Halal certificate, while each of the ASEAN countries only follow to their own national guidelines. This guideline is developed almost 14 years ago and many aspects may be changed or obsolete, so it require to review or update on a regular basis such as once a year to keep improving the available guideline to a more broadening aspects covering Halal. Among ten countries in ASEAN, there are 5 countries (Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore) which have their own national Halal standard. Malaysian Standards of MS 1500: 2009 which is a ISO compliance standard had also being use as references to create the Codex General Guidelines for Use of the Term Halal. It means that an international or regional guidelines can be produced by refers to others countries national standard. As discussed in the previous section, there are several aspects that have been found to be conflict among different national standard. This is due to different country have different interpretation on major issue, while some countries have stricter requirement than the other countries or had lower tolerance toward advancement of technology for production. However, all these national standards and regional standard should be integrated by compare and contrast on the requirements between each national standard. Then, middle ground or highest tolerance limits which are able to be achieved and agreed by each nation will be set. Hence, barrier to trade due to differ of national Halal standard can be resolved and food trade among ASEAN countries could be facilitated. This solution seems effective but actually rather difficult to implement because normally each country will have their own stand point regarding the Halal food handling and production. These actions of finding and integrating the guidelines available in ASEAN region and international are effective to be use in setting a general guideline to be used in ASEAN countries. The collection of references standard should be continue done by the ASEAN ad-hoc working group and they may also refers to the activities or effort that had been done by International Halal Integrity (IHI) Alliance or Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) nation. IHI Alliance could be a vehicle to develop, implement, maintain and harmonize the Halal standard because it is a non-profit, non-governmental and non-national body which provides a platform for its members to share information and work together for integrity of the Halal industry (Wan-Hassan, 2007). This body is further strengthen by collaboration between IHI Alliance and the Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI). This ICCI-IHI collaboration had launched four modules regarding Logistics, Food Services, Slaughtering and Processin g, and Animal Welfare, while plan to launched another four new modules of Laboratory and Testing, Animal Feed, Food Processing, and Cosmetics and Toiletries to assist OIC member countries in setting up a structured domestic Halal assurance body with proper certification scheme (The Star, 2010). Their effort on this issue is due to only less than 10 out of 57 OIC member countries are having a structured Halal standard, so they are assisting by harmonize the global standard and become a reference for others countries. The ICCI-IHI collaboration had developed the standard by refers to the The International Organization for Standardization/ The International Electrotechnical Commision (ISO/IEC), Guidelines for International Standards Development, while adhering to World Trade Organisations Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement, Code of Good Practice for Standards Development (IHI, 2010). ASEAN countries can adopt or use the modules developed by ICCI-IHI collaboration as the references s tandard to product a harmonize standard to be use among the region. Setting Benchmark Standard Instead on only setting the guidelines, benchmark standard is also an important area to be set up in harmonizing the standard between ASEAN countries. A guideline without proper benchmark level will be useless. Certifying bodies uses the benchmark standard for accreditation of the Halal certificate. According Darhim (2008), benchmark standard of certification bodies can be generated according to ISO/IEC Guide 65 which related to General Requirements for Bodies Operating Product Certification Systems. It is also important to obtain the Syariah parameters that established from reputable religious authorities and work within these parameters to set the benchmark. Research and development in scientific analytical method of non-Halal component is able to assist in setting benchmarks for a particular component. The benchmark standard must be within the level which satisfied and accepted by Muslims, while achievable by the industry. Strict Halal standard which able to satisfied the Muslim p opulation, but not achievable will not bring benefits to any parties. Hence, middle ground which is the generally acceptable benchmark needs to be set to satisfy both Muslim population and industry. By having a harmonized Halal standards and certification system, Muslim consumer could be confident on the right quality of product they obtained and facilitate the regional trade. IHI Alliance is putting effort on setting a benchmark standard which is an important element in harmonization of the Halal standard among global countries. For example, the benchmark standards that need to be set are such as amount of current to stun different animals, amount of alcohol which not derived from liquor production that permitted in foods and others. These benchmark need to be set to settle any possible dispute that arise during trade of Halal product between ASEAN countries. It is not necessarily that ASEAN countries need to depend on the IHI Alliance to set the benchmark, the ASEAN ad-hoc working group which comprised of members from all ASEAN country could also putting effort in this aspect. The setting of benchmark standard should be easier to achieve within ASEAN countries compared to IHI Alliance because IHI Alliance aim to harmonize the Halal standard worldwide but ASEAN ad-hoc working group only harmonize and setting benchmark for 10 members of ASEAN countries. Ho wever, there are also people stated that a certification scheme for all is difficult to achieved because it cannot meet the needs of all certification body, if only one is required, it need to take very long time to harmonise. So, Dr Jochen Zoller, who is the President of Food Services Division at Intertek UK had suggested to set up a Halal benchmark with independent third party certification body, like British Retail Consortium which introduce Food Technical Standard to have tight control over the manufacturing process of manufacturer who get the BRC certificate. Minimum Core Standard In the research paper by Wan-Hassan (2007), he stated that Dr. Habib MNasri, Director of Quality Control at McDonalds International had suggested the establishment of Minimum Core Standard during the conference of World Halal Forum on year 2007. Minimum Core Standard can act as an approach to harmonize the Halal standard between countries, as the minimum core carry the zero tolerance for a few basic issues with addendums applied to each individual country. An addendum is a section of extra information which added to something and in this case it is added on explain the minimum core. This action may be able to set a benchmark standard among countries. In this model, the addendum will list out each country with their clearly defined requirements to approve an action as Halal, while the core will be the minimum limit and common ground where each country can follow and achieved. For example, the Minimum Core Standard will set zero tolerance for some basic issues such as pork and alcohol with addendum applied to each individual country. On the other hand, Minimum Core Standard might be used for certain controversial issue such as mechanical slaughtering for poultry, where Malaysia and Thailand permitted the mechanical slaughtering, but Brunei prohibited it. So, minimum core or common ground should be found between these countries to facilitate the trade of Halal products and the Minimum Core Standard may be used to achieve this. However, certain countries like Vietnam and Myanmar do not even have a national Halal standard, so it causes difficulty to implement the Minimum Core Standard, as in the addendum could not apply appropriately with countries without proper Halal Standard. In my opinion, those countries without proper Halal standard may follow the minimum core which is the consensus between countries with Halal standard. Industry and Government Effort To come out with a regional Halal standard for Halal product, it required the major combined effort between the industry and government authorities. By cooperation of various parties and expert on issue regarding Halal, it can enhance or catalyst the process of harmonization of the ASEAN Halal Standard (Khaleej Times Online, 2008). Before the Halal standard could be harmonize between countries, harmonize certification system should be applied in the particular nation first. An integrated development of the Halal industry is able to ensure the conformity of the industries to the stated certification standard. For example, Malaysia is planning to conduct the systemic development of the entire value chain by establishing of Halal parks. By having Halal park which dedicated to the downstream production of Halal product, the product produced would be free from non-Halal contaminant and having requisite infrastructure, adequate shared facilities with service provider located in these park. On the other hand, coordination among ministries and agencies are also required to promote and develop the Halal industry (MITI, 2006). Government and industry need to gain consensus regarding the requirement for Halal product to catalyst the harmonization and implementation of the Halal standard. Government will put effort in creating the benchmark standard for the industries to follow, while government agency especially authorities for Halal certification will enforce the standard and given Halal certificate for product which comply with the requirement in the standard. On the other hand, inter-governmental bodies such as Islamic authorities from each ASEAN country should put effort on harmonization of Halal Standard among ASEAN countries, by together facing the challenge of
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Tiffany Gattis Tavel ENG 151 05 Oct 2012 A Review of a Rose Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , by William Faulkner is a riveting tale of the perils of love lost. Though the story offers up an elaborate plot, the conclusion did not fully provide closure as would be the natural expectation. Instead, the conclusion was heavily shrouded in mystery and secrecy. Ã¢â¬Å"Miss Emily after DarkÃ¢â¬ , by Thomas Robert Argiro, which was published in The Mississippi Quarterly, discusses the many obscurities within the story and the effects of them remaining so right up to the conclusion with relation to the reader.Laura J. GettyÃ¢â¬â¢s critical essay,Ã¢â¬ FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ touches on the manner in which these obscurities evoke sensationalism among readers by leaving room for the imagination to run wild with approximation. This is what great stories are built on; allowing each reader perceptive resolution. According to Dictionary. com, the word conclusion is defined as the last main division of discourse, usually containing a summary of the main points and a statement of opinion or decisions reached. There is, by definition, a sense of finality in the word.Despite the suggested intent, not all stories provide this presumed closure. Among the many tales ending in such a manner is FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s masterfully crafted Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ ; a story set in a small, post World War II southern town struggling with post-war socio-economic transformations. The conclusion of this ominous tale allows the readers imagination the freedom to supplement omitted details with personally palatable concepts. Among the central yet under-developed themes were EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s relationships with her father, the surrounding community, and her assumed lover, Homer Barron.The relationship between Emily and her father, as described by Faulkner, leaves the reader pondering what, and exactly how much was left unsaid, and the possible implications as they relate to t he proverbial white space of the story. Ã¢â¬Å"The townspeople are extremely sensitive to EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological state. Ã¢â¬Å"When Emily tries to keep her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s corpse, they believed that she had to do that. We remember all the young men her father had driven away, and we knew that with nothing left, she would cling to that which had robbed her, as people willÃ¢â¬ (Getty 2).Though it is not unusual for fathers to be protective of their daughters, the rapport described begins to border on what most would consider discomfited and deviant. The relationship was so constrictive that it mired her progression through crucial developmental milestones; likely contributing to the progressive emotional unrest witnessed in the years following his death. Ã¢â¬Å"The specter of incest opens the story up to consideration of the psychic damage that Emily may have sufferedÃ¢â¬ (Argiro 2).With her only permissible companion now laid to rest, Emily seems unable, or even unwilling to master the art of normal human interaction. Her self-imposed isolation did nothing to alleviate strained relations with a town already grappling with the adaptations of a new era; the death of the south, as it had been know to its inhabitants, was underway. Though the reader is given the impression that Emily did not recognize the progressive deterioration of her already severely dilapidated living quarters, this seems highly unlikely.More plausible is the possibility that she did in fact recognize the decline, and as a result renounced the inquiries of the masses in an attempt to protect her residual stateliness. Ã¢â¬Å"EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s myth does not enliven Jefferson; instead it discloses an impoverished fantasy of a lost noblesse obligeÃ¢â¬ (Argiro 3). Throughout childhood, Emily had been psychologically inundated with the notion that she was superior to southern-born counterparts; a queen amongst paupers. The effects of this are apparent in the nonchalant manner in which she dismisses the legitimate concerns of the townspeople. I have no taxes in JeffersonÃ¢â¬ , was her sole response when asked about payment that was undoubtedly long overdue; a response that should have resulted in eviction in the absence of the unanimously sympathetic sentiments of the townspeople she clearly did not hold in high regard. Ã¢â¬Å"She appears visible enough to the townspeople bent on scrutinizing her every move, yet she remains well beyond their comprehensionÃ¢â¬ (Argiro 1). Emily lived by her own scruples in both her business and personal matters, and gave little or no thought as to social consequences.Her love life was not exempt from these sentiments. Ã¢â¬Å"The indignant community is scandalized that she would ever think seriously of a Northerner, a day laborerÃ¢â¬ (Argiro 1). Homer Barron did not at all fit the profile of what the surrounding community considered a suitable husband. Among the many concerns voiced was his assumed sexual preference. He could b e seen by all gallivanting about the town with various young men drinking and causing a great ruckus; behavior not at all like that which was expected of a southern gentleman, and certainly not becoming of a suitor of a revered southern belle.Speculation as to his true motives with regard to his public courting of Emily spread riotously throughout the community. The scene evoked mixed emotions because though the relationship did serve to increase EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s socialization, to the public eye, they appeared hopelessly mismatched. Ã¢â¬Å"EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s liaison with Homer is in many respects remarkable: she makes a leap out of her seclusion and into a new intimate social realityÃ¢â¬ (Argiro 2). Though HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s motives will forever remain a mystery, it is abundantly clear that whatever his rationale could have been, it ultimately cost him his life.Though little clarity was provided as to the circumstance surrounding HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s death, it can be deduced that the overwhelmin g fear of loneliness and lost love were among EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s motivators. Ã¢â¬Å"No one knows the intimacies of Emily and Homer with any certainty, but select details may expose various reasons for HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s corpse winding up on gruesome display in EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s upstairs bedroomÃ¢â¬ (Argiro 3). It seems unfathomable that a man of HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience would not have recognized her social immaturity and vulnerability. Homer seemed to take full advantage; accepting gifts which pointed to the prospects of a dignified future with Emily in holy matrimony.Still, he appeared in no hurry to solidify a commitment. In a time when a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue was considered transposable with her character, such mismanagement could have triggered the emotional instability that resulted in his untimely demise. Despite FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to input such ambiguity into the story line; what emerged was a masterpiece that will likely evoke great debate for centuries to come. It is this imp recision that makes this story such a powerful read; reigniting within its readers a burning, child-like curiosity that sets the imagination afire with conjecture. The main secrets in Jefferson take place inside that building, and the most important secret is revealed only after the flowers have been placed on EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s graveÃ¢â¬ (Getty 2). Like stories of the haunted, abandoned house just at the end of lane, this story will endure through generations of fresh perspectives and renewed deliberation. Work Cited Argiro, Thomas Robert. Ã¢â¬Å"Miss Emily after dark. Ã¢â¬ The Mississippi Quarterly 64. 3-4 (2011): 445+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 29 Sep. 2012. Getty, Laura J. Ã¢â¬Å"Faulkner's A Rose for Emily. Ã¢â¬ The Explicator 63. 4 (2005): 230+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 29 Sep. 2012.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Materialism refers to a collection of personality traits. The modern world is full of people who possess the need to be materialistic. Many have a belief that owning things and having the right to acquire everything are the main ingredients to happiness. These people think that success is judged by the amount of possessions owned. Philosophers have been complaining for long that materialism is not needed in moral life. More often the goal of gaining material wealth is regarded as an empty joy and in result prevents a person from being involved in a normal lifestyle. The consequence of pursuing a materialistic lifestyle is the issue in attaining a state of true happiness in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The empirical studies conducted have shown that there is no connection between materialism and real happiness. Imam Ali warned his followers about materialism, saying that it would Ã¢â¬Å"blind them from the life in the hereafter in two ways.Ã¢â¬ It would lead them to believe that only this world matters, and getting anything a person wants would not be able to satisfy their needs. Secondly, it would lead to excess, which would lead to human suffering, a truth which has been discovered by many and is the main principle of Bhuddism. If one becomes too materialistic, then this would cause them to try to do all that is necessary to get what they want, not what they need. Being materialistic is a bad trait to own, as it leads to the creation of the world of difference in the way people treat other human beings(although everyone has a slight habit of materialism in them). The materialistic people rarely treat others as their equals and often try very hard to show off their wealth. They hardly care about anyone but themselves and frequently tend to exploit and ruin people only to get themselves put higher on the social ladder. It is, in my opinion, important for people to read and follow the teachings of the Bible and try to posses morality. The little traits we own, we must share with the poor as this will try for equality in the society. Materialism causes society to be impoverished. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, materialism takes part in almost every ones life, no matter what social class they may be labeled. The idea of being materialistic can be considered immoral (I consider it immoral), but there is a fine line between morality and personal interests. It is safe to say that everybody is materialistic in some way, whether it be from buying the same brand of jeans because they fit nice, to purchasing a wide variety of very nice cars. It is obvious that the more obvious of the two is the one where you might say they are crossing the line. Buying some nice clothes here and there is normal for people and most try to do it once in a while. While on the other hand, buying five or six sports cars can be considered quite materialistic. Many factors go into a person being immoral based on the materials that they have. Greed and too many luxuries are what can determine the immorality of a person. Growing up in a fairly poor community, it was easy to distinguish the differences among different levels of social class and the way which they are shown in the community. Thoreau believed in Ã¢â¬Å"Living deep and sucking all the marrow out of life,Ã¢â¬ and so he lived on Walden Pond for two years to see how he could simplify his own life in order to live life to the fullest. I wish I could create my own Ã¢â¬Å"Walden,Ã¢â¬ a place I could go to in order to escape the materialism of my society. The place that I would like to create to go would be a place where there is no materialism and I can be myself and be who I want to be. It is a place thatÃ¢â¬â¢s far away, deep in the woods. This is a place that anything is possible. All around me I see nothing but flowers and animals, beautiful green grass and my own little house to spend my days in. Out there I donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to struggle with having to pay bills or having to find and be able to keep a job. All I need to do is sit back, relax, and do what ever I please. I would like to fish for food, but I would only catch what I could eat, because I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to waste. I will sometimes hu nt for my dinner and look for food on the ground like bushes of berries. Out in the forest no one has to worry about materialism, they only have to be themselves. I would choose this place because I love the forest and I love animals. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to put up any fuss about doing anything that I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to or enjoy doing. I could enjoy living out there in the wilderness, only listening to nature and the birds and all the things that surround me. I bathe in a river that flows with fresh water every day. IÃ¢â¬â¢m quite happy that I would have pets with me because if I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t then I would be lonely all the time and I would have no one to share my many secrets with. My home would be rather simple, but it fulfills my needs, and out there I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t need much. All I would have inside is a chair to read in, a toilet under the tree, and a bed. I would only possess the necessities that I need to live. I will build a fire every night to keep me warm and to cook my food. My house would be just a cabin that can only fit me and my dog (IÃ¢â¬â¢d get one to live in the forest alone) just the way that I want it. I would surround it with flowers to make it look pretty and interesting around my cabin. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s cozy and something that I could just go to and think and be by me and never have to worry about the pressure of the world, my society or community, and the materialistic crowds that surround me. Materialism in my eyes, and many othersÃ¢â¬â¢, creates a world filled with chaos and stress. Everybody needs a place to go and relax to get away from it all. What I gathered from my research was that there is always a need for someone to have a place they can go for comfort and relaxation. Materialism weighs down the real, true value of life and causes many to take for granted what they have. When you compare someone who owns many items high in cash value, who rarely gets to see their family or spends an inconceivable amount of hours at a job they hate, with someone who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have as much money, but spends their life doing the things they love, who is really truly happy? This question haunts us all, for it is hard to know what real happiness is when surrounded by such a commercial world. But I, for one, will work on my materialistic traits. I wont be able to rid myself of them completely, but changing my lifestyle and values will hopefully heighten my feeling of self worth, and I think every one should live by this philosophy. Bibliography http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/materialism.htm http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_vitzthum/materialism.html http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/materialism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_materialism Belk, R.W. (1985). Trait aspects of living in the material world. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 265-280. Novack, George (1979), The Origins of Materialism, New York: Pathfinder Press